Glossary P-R

Permit An authorization, license, or equivalent control document issued by an approved agency to implement the requirements of environmental regulation; e.g., a permit to operate a wastewater treatment plant or to operate a facility that may generate harmful emissions.
Precipitation Removal of solids from liquid waste so that the hazardous solid portion can be disposed of safely; removal of particles from air-borne emissions.
Primary treatment Treatment which includes all operation prior to and including primary treatment, e.g., bar screening, grit removal, comminution, and primary sedimentation.
Raw sewage Untreated wastewater.
Recycle/ reuse The process of minimizing the generation of waste by recovering usable products that might otherwise become wastes. Examples are the recycling of aluminum cans, waste paper, and bottles.
Refuse All forms of solid waste.
Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) A fuel derived from the combustible portion of municipal solid waste. The fuel is often processed into small briquettes, similar in size to charcoal.
Residual Amount of a pollutant remaining in the environment after a natural or technological process has taken place, e.g, the sludge remaining after initial wastewater treatment , or particulates remaining in air after the passes through a scrubbing or other pollutant removal process.
Resource recovery The process of obtaining matter or energy from materials formerly discarded.
Runoff The water that flows overland to lakes or streams during and shortly after a precipitation event

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