Glossary C-D

 
Carbon dioxide (CO2) A colorless, odorless, non-poisonous gas that results from fossil fuel combustion and is normally a part of the ambient air.
Carbon monoxide (CO) A colorless, odorless, poisonous gas produced by incomplete fossil fuel combustion.
Chemical fixation (stabilization/solidification)
A term for several different methods of chemically immobilizing hazardous materials into a cement, plastic, or other matrix.
Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) A measure of the oxygen required to oxidize all compounds in water, both organic and inorganic.
Chemical treatment Any one of a variety of technologies that use chemicals or a variety of chemical processes to treat waste.
Chlorination The application of chlorine to drinking water, sewage, or industrial waste to disinfect or to oxidize undesirable compounds.
Clarifier(sedimentation basin) A tank in which quiescent settling occurs, allowing solid particles suspended in the water to agglomerate and settle to the bottom of the tank. The solids resulting from the settling being removed as a sludge.
Combined sewers A sewer system that carries both sewage and storm water runoff. Normally, its entire flow goes to a waste treatment plant, but during a heavy storm the stormwater volume may be so great as to cause overflows. When this happens, untreated mixtures of stormwater and sewage may flow into receiving waters. Stormwater runoff may also carry toxic chemicals from industrial areas or streets into the sewer system.
Composting The controlled aerobic degradation of organic wastes into a material which can be used for landscaping, landfill cover, or soil conditioning.
Disposal Final placement or destruction of toxic, radioactive, or other chemicals; polluted soils; and drums containing hazardous materials from removal actions or accidental releases. Disposal may be accomplished through use of approved secure landfills, surface impoundments, land farming, deep well injection, ocean dumping, or incineration
Dissolved oxygen (DO) The oxygen freely available in water, vital to fish and other aquatic life and for the prevention of odors. Traditionally, the level of dissolved oxygen has been accepted as the single most indicator of the ability of a water body to support desirable aquatic life. Secondary wastewater treatment and advanced wastewater treatment are generally designed to protect DO in waste- receiving waters.
Dissolved solids Disintegrated organic and inorganic material contained in water. Excessive amounts make water unfit for drinking or for use in industrial processes.
Dump An illegal and uncontrolled area where wastes have been placed on or in the ground.

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